Further Reading

The 100 Stories were first devised as a digital history, and designed to prompt new ways of remembering war. By popular demand, the stories have been recast as a book.

Lavishly illustrated, carefully researched and written in crisp, engaging prose, World War One: A history in 100 stories extends our understanding of a conflict that shaped the modern world. You can learn more about the book (co-authored by Bruce Scates, Rebecca Wheatley and Laura James) on the Penguin website.

Like all scholarly books, World War One: A history in 100 Stories features detailed listings of all the archival and secondary sources consulted. It also includes lists of further reading and a select bibliography.

Stories 1-10

Alexander McKinnon

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: The authors respectfully acknowledge the Arrente people of central Australia and their elders, past and present. This story draws on Alexander McKinnon’s service dossier NAA: B2455, MCKINNON ALEXANDER and contemporary newspaper reports. For further reading on the family see Marcelle Edwards, MacKinnon Family: Scotland to Australia 1840 (Adelaide: np, 2010.) For general studies of Aboriginal people in the First AIF see Philippa Scarlett, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island Volunteers for the AIF: The Indigenous Response to World War One (Canberra: Indigenous Histories, 2013); David Huggonson, Too Dark for the Light Horse: An Exhibition of Photographs & Documents Depicting Aboriginal Involvement in the Australian Army at the Albury Regional Museum, August 11th–September 27th compiled by David Huggonson, Albury, 1988; Alick Jackomos and Derek Fowell, Forgotten Heroes: Aborigines at War from the Somme to Vietnam (Melbourne: Victoria Press, 1993). The authors eagerly await the important work of Mick Dodson, John Maynard and Jack Pearson into Indigenous service.

Story: With due care

Frank Wilkinson

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the Wilkinson Papers courtesy Jill Fradd and her assistance is gratefully acknowledged. Other sources used include the Coroner’s Inquest of the deaths of Frank, Elizabeth and Isabella Wilkinson PROV VPRS24, 1927/1017; Frank Wilkinson’s service dossier NAA: B2455, WILKINSON FRANCIS EDELBERT; his repatriation record NAA: B73, R87683; and his soldier settlement file PROV VPRS5714, unit 1473, file 4147/12. The Wilkinson tragedy was reported on widely in the press and this story has drawn on many of the contemporary newspaper articles. The authors would like to thank George Gemmill, Secretary of the Stanhope RSL, for his generous assistance with this story. For further reading on postwar trauma see Jay Winter, ‘Shell shock’ in Jay Winter (ed), The Cambridge History of the First World War, vol. III (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp. 310–333 and Tanja Lukins, The Gates of Memory: Australian People’s Experiences and Memories of Loss and the Great War (Perth: Curtin University Press, 2004) and Richard Lindstrom, ‘The Australian Experience of Psychological Casualties in War 1915–1939’ (PhD thesis, Victoria University of Technology, 1997).

Story: At breaking point

Harold Candy

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Harold Candy’s service dossier NAA: B2455, CANDY HJ; his repatriation file NAA: D363, R14615, CANDY, HAROLD JOSEPH; and the police report to the Coroner SRSA GRG 1/44, 242. The tragic death of Harold Candy was reported on widely in the press, and this story has drawn on contemporary newspaper articles. For further reading on postwar trauma see Jay Winter, ‘Shell shock’, in Jay Winter (ed) The Cambridge History of the First World War, vol. III (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp. 310–333. The authors gratefully acknowledge the work of A.C. (Sandy) MacFarlane and Malcolm Sim, whose work explores the intertwined physical and psychological effects of war.

Story: Weary hours and days of pain

Hilda Williams

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on an extensive survey of contemporary newspaper reports. The authors have also drawn on a forum discussion published by the ABC and information from Earle Seubert and the Friends of Woodman Point Recreation Camp (Inc). We thank Kirsty Harris for her informed reading of the Williams’ case. For a study of the Boonah’s ill-fated voyage see Ian Darroch, The Boonah Tragedy (Bassebdean: Access Press, 2004). For more details on civilian nursing and the largely unacknowledged contribution of the Voluntary Aids Detachments see Rupert Goodman, Voluntary Aids Detachments in Peace and War (Brisbane: Boolarong Publications, 1991). For further reading on the Spanish Flu, see Anne Rasmussen, ‘The Spanish Flu’ in Jay Winter (ed,) The Cambridge History of the First World War, vol. III (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp. 334–357.

Story: This striking case of courage and devotion

John Monash

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the service records of John Monash (NAA: B2455 Monash, John) and personal papers held at both the Australian War Memorial and the National Library of Australia (John Monash Papers, AWM, 3 DRL/2316; Sir John Monash Papers, NLA, MS 1884). Quotations are also drawn from his published account of the final campaigns of the war, John Monash, The Australian Victories in France in 1918 (London: Hutchison, 1920). Details of Monash’s post-war life and his role in the repatriation process were provided by his personal papers and a number of biographies. Accounts of Monash – the man and the soldier vary enormously in quality. The most balanced and searching account remains Geoffrey Serle, John Monash: A Biography (Carlton: Melbourne University Press, 1982). For an extended study of Monash’s role in shaping Anzac commemoration see Bruce Scates, A Place to Remember: A History of the Shrine of Remembrance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2009).

Story: I hate the business of war

Lizzie Armstrong

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on contemporary newspaper reports detailing Lizzie’s life and work and a detailed scan of the British Australasian and its successor, the British Australian and New Zealander. For further reading on Lizzie Armstrong see Bruce Scates, Return to Gallipoli: Walking the Battlefields of the Great War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). For further reading on women’s movement within the Empire see Angela Woollacott, To Try Her Fortune in London: Australian Women, Colonialism, and Modernity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001) and for women’s mobilisation during the Great War see Raelene Frances, ‘Women’s Mobilisation for War’, International Encyclopedia of the First World War (eds) Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson (Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, 2014).

Story: That Australian girl

Mervyn Higgins

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Captain Higgins’ service dossier NAA: B2455, HIGGINS M B CAPTAIN; and his Red Cross Wounded and Missing file AWM 1DRL/0428. This story also draws on the extensive archival collections held by the National Library of Australia and Australian War Memorial, Higgins Papers NLA MS 2525; Higgins Papers NLA MS1057; Higgins, Mervyn Bournes AWM 3DRL/0421. For further reading on Henry Higgins, his bereavement and his pilgrimage see Bruce Scates, Return to Gallipoli: Walking the Battlefields of the Great War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). There are also a number of outstanding biographies including Nettie Palmer, Henry Bournes Higgins: A Memoir (London: Harrap, 1931) and John Rickard, Henry Higgins: The Rebel as Judge (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1984).

Story: My grief condemns me

Narrelle Hobbes

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the extensive collections relating to Narrelle Hobbes at the Australian War Memorial PR3708 and 2DRL/0162; as well as Melanie Oppenheimer’s fine book, Oceans of Love (Sydney: ABC Books, 2006). Narrelle’s war service and her death just off the coast of Australia were reported on in the press and this story has drawn on these contemporary newspaper articles. For further reading on the work of nurses during war see Jan Bassett, Guns and Brooches : Australian Army Nursing from the Boer War to the Gulf War (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992); and Kirsty Harris, More than Bombs and Bandages : Australian Army Nurses at Work in World War I (Newport: Big Sky Publishing, 2011).

Story: Almost within sight of Australia

Noble Black

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Noble Black’s soldier settlement file State Records NSW: 12/7293, BLACK NA; his repatriation file NAA: C138/4 C29645, BLACK NA; his service dossier NAA: B2455, BLACK N A. For further reading about illness and disability after the war see Martin Crotty and Marina Larsson (eds), Anzac Legacies: Australians and the Aftermath of War (North Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2010); and Bruce Scates and Melanie Oppenheimer, The Last Battle of the Great War: Soldier Settlement in Australia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).

Story: A deeply damaged man

Peter Rados

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Peter Rados’ service dossier NAA:B2455 RADOS PETER; and his immigration records NAA: A1 1914/15312. The authors gratefully acknowledge Michael Manoussakis for his assistance in bringing these records to light. One of the best and most recent books on the dispersal of the Greek diaspora and the rise of Greek and Turkish nationalism is by Nicolas Doumanis, Before the Nation, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012) and for the debate surrounding the Armenians, see Eugene Rogan, The Fall of the Ottomans: The Great War in the Middle East (New York: Basic Books, 2015).

Story: The hardships of war

Rachael Pratt

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Rachael Pratt’s service dossier NAA: B2455 PRATT R; her repatriation file NAA: B73, H5789; and Rachael’s reflections on nursing on Lemnos in Reveille, vol. 6, no. 12, Aug. 1933. For further reading on Australian nurses see Jan Bassett, Guns and Brooches: Australian Army nursing from the Boer War to the Gulf War (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992); Kirsty Harris, More than Bombs and Bandages: Australian Army Nurses at Work in World War I (Newport: Big Sky Publishing, 2011); and Alice McConnell, Women in War: Lemnos–Gallipoli 1915 (Melbourne: Artek Productions, 2015).

Story: No prospect of it ending

Stories 11-20

Allan Whittaker

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Allan Whittaker’s service dossier NAA: B2455 WHITTAKER ALLAN; his repatriation record NAA: B73 R44423; and the Coroner’s Inquest into the death of Allan Whittaker, PROV VPRS24, 1929: 428. The authors gratefully acknowledge the fine eulogies delivered in memory of Allan Whittaker by historian Chris McConville, retired Supreme Court judge Frank Vincent and Martin Foley, MLA, (Member for Albert Park). Thanks are also due to Paddy Garrity, Perce White and Kevin Bracken of the Maritime Union of Australia. For more information on the life of dock workers in Port Melbourne see Wendy Lowenstein and Tom Hills, Under The Hook (Melbourne: Melbourne Bookworkers in association with the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, 1982); Rhonda Wilson and Sue Formby, Good Talk (Melbourne: McPhee Gribble, 1985). Further background on the Dockers’ strike is provided by David Baker, ‘ “You Dirty Bastards, Are You Fair Dinkum?”: Police And Union Confrontation On The Wharf’, New Zealand Journal Of Industrial Relations, vol. 27, no. 1, 2002, pp. 33–48. For differing assessments of Blamey’s fascist sympathies see Michael Cathcart, Defending The National Tuckshop (Melbourne: McPhee Gribble/Penguin Books, 1989); and D. M. Horner, Blamey (St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin, 1998).

Story: A fellow Australian killed him

Carman Brothers

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the service dossiers of each of the Carman boys NAA: B2455, CARMAN CC; NAA: B2455, CARMAN RC; NAA: B2355, CARMAN DW; the Red Cross Wounded and Missing file of Clement Carman AWM 1DRL/0428. For further reading on war memorials in the Australian landscape see Ken Inglis, Sacred Places: War Memorials in the Australian Landscape (Carlton: Melbourne University Press, 1998); Bruce Scates and Rebecca Wheatley, ‘War Memorials’ in Jay Winter (ed) The Cambridge History of the First World War, vol. III (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp. 528–558. The authors warmly acknowledge the assistance of Nigel Starck and John Savage in researching the Carman brothers’ story.

Story: That chilling phrase

Charles Campbell

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the Walter Campbell Memorial Trust, Charles Sturt University Regional Archives and University Art Collection, Wagga Wagga and contemporary newspaper reports. The authors would like to thank the Reverend Paul Black and St John’s congregation. For more information on the Campbell family and the Yarralumla estate, see Charles Newman, The Spirit of Wharf House: Campbell Enterprise from Calcutta to Canberra, 1788–1930 (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1987); and C D Coulthard-Clark, Gables, Ghosts and Governers-General: The Historic House at Yarralumla, Canberra (Sydney: Allen & Unwin in association with the Canberra and District Historical Society, 1988). The authors would like to thank Chris Clark for directing us to the Campbell story.

Story: Born of the wings of high adventure

George McQuay

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on contemporary newspaper reports; George McQuay’s service dossier R10927130, Archives New Zealand; and the records of Callan Park Mental Hospital. The latter were accessed (with the kind assistance of Belinda Saunders) in 2004. The authors thank NSW Health for permission to view the same and the Australian Research Council for funding. The most detailed treatment of the McQuay case is given by Jen Hawksley, ‘Long Time Coming Home: The Unknown Patient of Callan Park’, in Martin Crotty and Marina Larsson (eds), Anzac Legacies: Australians and the Aftermath of War (Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2010) and her assistance is gratefully acknowledged. For similar cases based on asylum records see Tanya Luckins, Gates of Memory: Australian Peoples Experience and Memories of Loss and the Great War (Perth: Curtin University Press, 2004); Bruce Scates, Return to Gallipoli: Walking the Battlefields of the Great War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006); Marina Larsson, Shattered Anzacs: Living with the Scars of War (Sydney: UNSW Press, 2009) and Alistair Thomson, Anzac Memories: Living with the Legend (Melbourne: Monash University Publishing, new edition, 2013). The authors thank the Friends of Callan Park (in particular Hall Greenland and Roslyn Burge) for their introduction to the important historic site.

Story: Thank God you are found

Gordon Wallace

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the service dossier of Gordon Wallace NAA: B2455, WALLACE GORDON JOHN; and his repatriation file NAA: B73, H61609; as well as Gordon Wallace’s file at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The authors would like to acknowledge Peter Thornton for highlighting Gordon Wallace’s case amongst his work on repatriation files at the National Archives of Australia. For further reading on facial injuries of the Great War see Kerry Neale ‘Without the Faces of Men: Disfigured Great War Veterans of Britain and the Dominions’ (PhD thesis, University of New South Wales, 2015).

Story: The man with half a face

James Ferguson

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the service dossier of James Ferguson NAA: B2455 FERGUSON J M; 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment diary AWM 4/10/15; and contemporary newspaper reports. For further reading on the Egyptian uprising of 1919, see Harry Gullett, ‘Appendix – The Egyptian Rebellion in 1919, Volume VII – The Australian Imperial Force in Sinai and Palestine, 1914–1918’, Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, 10th edition (Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1941); and Michael Hough, Gallipoli to Tripoli: History of the Tenth Light Horse Regiment 1914–1918 (Victoria Park: Hesperia Press, 2012); and the Australian History-International Explorer Guide for Egypt and Lebanon, ahieg.com.au.

Story: The Empire's bidding

Norman Gibbins

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Norman Gibbins’ service dossier NAA: B2455, GIBBINS N; his Red Cross Wounded and Missing file AWM 1DRL/0428; and the Gibbins Papers AWM PR02053. For further reading on Violet Gibbins (or Gibbons, as she often went by), see Robyn Hanstock ‘“In the Spirit of the Navy”: Violet Gibbons and Osborne Ladies’ College, Blackheath’, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 91, no. 1, June 2005, pp. 29–47. We also gratefully acknowledge the research of John Low on the life of Violet Gibbins. For a perceptive study of women’s experience of bereavement see Joy Damousi, The Labour of Loss: Mourning, Memory and Wartime Bereavement in Australia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Story: Inexpressibly dear to me

Olive Pink

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Harold Southern’s service dossier NAA: B2455 SOUTHERN HAROLD ALFRED; Michael Jackson, At Home in the World (Durham: Duke University Press, 1995); Alison Holland, ‘Feminism, Colonialism and Aboriginal Workers: An Anti-Slavery Crusade’, Labour History, 1 November 1995, no. 69, November 1995, pp. 52–64; the works of Russell McGregor, ‘The Clear Categories of Olive Pink, Oceania, vol 65, no 1, September 1994, pp.4–17; Julie Marcus, The Indomitable Miss Pink: A Life in Anthropology (Sydney: UNSW Press, 2001); Reg Harris, ‘Olive Muriel Pink [Recollections of Miss Pink’s personal life]’, Bulletin (Olive Pink Society), vol. 6, no. 2, 1994, pp. 7–16. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Alison Holland. For a rich visual record of Olive’s life see the Olive Pink Collection at the University of Tasmania.

Story: Never to love again

Peter Chirvin

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Peter Chirvin’s service dossier NAA: B2455, CHIRVIN P. The death of Private Chirvin was reported on throughout Australia and this story draws on these contemporary newspaper articles. For further reading on Russian Anzacs see Elena Govor, Russian Anzacs in Australian History (Sydney: UNSW Press, 2005).

Story: True to Australia

Rowland Lording

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the work written by A. Tiveychoc (the pen name of Rowland Lording), There and Back: The Story of an Australian Soldier 1915–1935 (Sydney: Halstead Publishing, 1935); Rowland Lording’s service dossier NAA: B2455, LORDING RE; and his repatriation file NAA: PP645/1, LORDING Rowland Edward. The achievements and battles of Rowland Lording were reported in the press throughout his life and this story has drawn on many of the contemporary newspaper articles, including items from the NSW’s RSL periodical, Reveille. For further reading on the history of repatriation see Stephen Garton, The Cost of War: Australians Return (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Story: The heart of a lion

Stories 21-30

Bernhardt Walther

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the service dossier of Bernhardt Walther NAA: B2455, WALTHER BERNHARDT HERMAN; his Red Cross Wounded and Missing file AWM 1DRL/0428; the war diaries of Captain Bernhardt Hermann Walther AWM PR00937; Walker Family Papers; and contemporary newspaper reports. The authors would like to thank David Walker for bringing this story to our attention and for generously sharing his research with us.

Story: Amongst the first ashore at Anzac

Edith Moorhouse

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: Along with extensive secondary sources, this story draws on the service dossier of Edith Moorhouse NAA: B2455 MOORHOUSE EDITH ANN; her Red Cross Wounded and Missing file AWM 1DRL/0428; the war diary of the Matron-in-Chief, The National Archives, Kew, W095/3991, November 1–30, 1918; the Papers of Matron Grace Wilson at the Australian War Memorial 3DRL 7819; and contemporary newspaper reports both in Australia and Britain.

Story: She hath done what she could

Emily Luttrell

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Arthur Parkes’ service dossier NAA: B2455, PARKES AL; and War Graves / Visits to Pt 1 NAA: A1608, F27/1/7 Part 1. See also Bruce Scates, ‘[It] ought to be as famous as the Statue of Liberty’: The Forgotten History of Tasmania’s Cenotaph – Australia’s first State War Memorial’, Tasmanian Historical Studies, vol. 14, 2009, pp. 53–78.

Story: Such a small favour

James Dann

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on James Dann’s service dossier NAA: B2455, DANN J N; his soldier settlement file State Records NSW: 12/7293/08239; his repatriation file NAA: C138/4 C314427 DANN JD. For further reading on the soldier settlement scheme see Bruce Scates and Melanie Oppenheimer, The Last Battle of the Great War: Soldier Settlement in Australia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016) and Glenys Allison, ‘Shadows of the Great War: Group Soldier Settlement in Greater Sydney’ (PhD thesis, University of New England, 2011).

Story: I still have the bullet in my body

Mary Chomley

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This entry is based on prisoners’ letters sent to Miss Chomley and the Australian-British Red Cross in AWM: 1DRL615 [749/19/20]; statements by repatriated prisoners AWM 30; and the Chomley Papers held in the State Library of Victoria MS 11000 and in the Red Cross Archives in both London and Melbourne. The most extensive treatment of Miss Chomley’s life and work can be found in Josephine Kildea’s honours thesis, ‘Miss Chomley and her Prisoners: the Prisoner of War Experience and the Australian Red Cross in the Great War (BA honours thesis, University of New South Wales, 2006). Other useful sources include Nola Anderson, ‘Dear Miss Chomley’, Wartime, no. 21, pp. 44– 46; Joan Beaumont, ‘Whatever Happened to Patriotic Women, 1914-1918?’, Australian Historical Studies, vol. 31, no. 115, 2000, pp. 273–286 and Melanie Oppenheimer, The Power of Humanity: 100 Years of the Australian Red Cross (Sydney: HarperCollins Australia, 2014). The authors thank Jane High of the British Red Cross for her help in accessing records in London.

Story: A labour of love

Rigney Brothers

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: The authors respectfully acknowledge the Ngarrindjeri people of South Australia and their elders, past and present. This story draws on the service dossiers for Rufus and Cyril NAA: B2455, RIGNEY RUFUS GORDON and NAA: B2455, RIGNEY CYRIL SPURGEON; and Rufus’s Red Cross Missing and Wounded file AWM IDRL/0428. See also Mike Sexton, ‘One service charged with extra emotion’, The 7:30 Report, ABC, 25 April 2005. Further details of the transfer of Raukkan land can be found in Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service Bulletin, February 2005, number 1/2005.

We gratefully acknowledge our debt to Clyde Rigney, who facilitated our visit to Raukkan, and Verna Koolmatrie, who welcomed us to the community and generously shared her memories. Thanks are also due to the Indigenous playwright Wesley Enoch who alerted us to the existence of the memorial window and who wove their story into his remarkable play, Black Diggers. Finally, we acknowledge the work of Julie Reece, whose ‘Connecting Spirits’ commemorative tour honours Indigenous service. Studies of Ngarrindjeri Anzacs were pioneered by Doreen Kartinyeri, see Ngarrindjeri Anzacs (Adelaide: Aboriginal Family History Project, South Australian Museum and Raukkan Council, 1996) and more generally Doreen Kartinyeri and Sue Anderson, My Ngarrindjeri Calling (Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 2008). This account also benefits from the scholarship of Diane Bell, Listen to Ngarrindjeri Women Speaking = Kungun Ngarrindjeri Miminar Yunnan (Melbourne: Spinifex Press, 2008); Ngarrindjeri Wurruwarrin: A World that Is, Was and Will Be (Melbourne: Spinifex Press, 1998). For general studies of Aboriginal people in the First AIF see Philippa Scarlett, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Volunteers for the AIF: The Indigenous Response to World War One (Canberra: Indigenous Histories, 2013); David Huggonson, Too Dark for the Light Horse: An Exhibition of Photographs & Documents Depicting Aboriginal Involvement in the Australian Army at the Albury Regional Museum, August 11th– September 27th (Albury, 1988); Alick Jackomos and Derek Fowell, Forgotten Heroes: Aborigines at War from the Somme to Vietnam (Melbourne: Victoria Press, 1993). The authors eagerly await the important work of Mick Dodson, John Maynard and Jack Pearson into Indigenous service.

Story: All that crying

Royce Baesjou

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Royce Baesjou’s service dossier NAA: B2455 BAESJOU, R C; his repatriation file NAA: PP18/1, R3317; and contemporary newspaper reports. The authors acknowledge Claire Gregory’s website roadtowarandback.blogspot.com.au which first alerted them to this case and thank Claire and Bev Taylor for assistance in accessing family papers, including Royce Baesjou’s journal. The literature surrounding shell shock is extensive and ranges from historical studies such as Peter Leese, Traumatic Neurosis and the British Soldiers of the First World War (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002) and for an Australian context, Bruce Scates and Melanie Oppenheimer, The Last Battle of the Great War: Soldier Settlement in Australia, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016) and Alistair Thomson, Anzac Memories: Living With the Legend (Melbourne: Monash University Publishing, new edition, 2013); as well as fictional accounts like Pat Barker, The Regeneration Trilogy (London: Viking Books, 1996).

Story: Died of shell shock

Samuel Rolfe

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the service dossier of Samuel Rolfe NAA: B2455, ROLFE SAMUEL EARL; his repatriation file NAA: C138, NC043642-01; and contemporary newspaper accounts. For a brief history of chemical warfare prior to the Great War see Arthur Butler, Official History of Australia Army Medical Service in the War of 1914–1918, vol. III Special Problems and Services (Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1943). For general histories of gas warfare see L.F Haber, The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986); William Moore, Gas Attack! Chemical Warfare 1915–1918 and Afterwards (New York: Hippocrene Books, 1987); Robert Joy, ‘Historical Aspects of Medical Defense Against Chemical Warfare,’ in Frederick R Sidle, Ernest T Takafuji and David R Franz (eds), Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare (Washington, DC: The Borden Institute, 1997); Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau, ‘1915: Stalemate’ in Jay Winter (ed), The Cambridge History of the First World War, vol. I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014) pp. 65–88; G. Fitzgerald, ‘Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I’, American Journal of Public Health, vol. 98, no. 4, 2008, pp. 611–625; Amos Fries and C. J. West, Chemical Warfare (New York: McGraw Hill, 1921); Albert Palazzo, Seeking Victory on the Western Front: The British Army and Chemical Warfare in World War I (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000).

Story: The man in the bath

William Irwin

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: The authors respectfully acknowledge the Gomeroi people of New South Wales and their elders, past and present. This account is based on sources in the public domain, most importantly the service dossier of William Irwin NAA: B2455, IRWIN, WILLIAM ALLEN. The authors acknowledge Brad Manera, Executive Manager of the Anzac Memorial in Sydney, who alerted them to this story and who has facilitated the community’s attempt to recover Irwin’s decoration. The medals in question will be stamped with his name and service number: William Irwin, No. 792. For general studies of Aboriginal people in the First AIF see Philippa Scarlett, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Volunteers for the AIF: The Indigenous Response to World War One (Canberra: Indigenous Histories, 2013); Alick Jackomos and Derek Fowell, Forgotten Heroes: Aborigines at War from the Somme to Vietnam (Melbourne: Victoria Press, 1993). The authors await the important work of Mick Dodson, John Maynard and Jack Pearson into Indigenous service.

Story: Written out of history

Stories 31-40

Adam Wardrop

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Adam Wardrop’s service dossier NAA: B2455, WARDROP ADAM GLADSTONE. The authors acknowledge the assistance of Mike and Roz Goodwin and the school students of Mackay North State High School who have carried out regular commemorations at the Australian National Memorial, Villers-Bretonneux, where Wardrop’s name is inscribed.

Story: Whatever time they had left

Alfred Sharp

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Alfred Sharp’s papers and photographs at the Australian War Memorial PRO4809; the service dossier for Driver J N Naughton NAA:B2455, NAUGHTON JN; Arrangements in connection with the graves of fallen soldiers buried in Europe general policy of Commonwealth Government NAA:A11849, 2350/2; Imperial War Graves Commission minutes of proceedings NAA:A209 A2909/2, A453/1/3; and a detailed survey of the British Australasian, journal of the expatriate community in London. For further information on the work of Australia House, see Olwen Valda Pryke, ‘Australia House: Representing Australia in London, 1901–1939’ (PhD thesis, University of Sydney, 2006) and Bruce Scates and Frank Bongiorno with Rebecca Wheatley and Laura James, ‘ “Such a great space of water between us”: Anzac Day in Britain, 1916–1939’ in Australian Historical Studies, vol. 45, no. 2, June 2014, pp. 220–241. The authors thank Frank Bongiorno and Angela Woollacott for their insights.

Story: Inventing Anzac Day in England

Allen Charlie Kingston

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the service dossier of Charles Kingston NAA: B2455, KINGSTON ALLEN CHARLES WATERS; the court of inquiry into the Graves Detachment at Villers- Bretonneux NAA: MP376/1, 446/10/1840; and contemporary newspaper reports, both in Australia and Britain.

Story: Captain Charlie’s Boozer

Arthur Rae

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story was informed by the service dossiers of Arthur Rae’s three sons, NAA: B2455, RAE WILLIAM LINCOLN; NAA: B2455, RAE DONALD MAC and NAA: B2455, RAE CHARLES JOSEPH. In addition to these, contemporary newspaper reports were also used. For studies of labour dissent during the Great War see Frank Bongiorno, Raelene Frances and Bruce Scates, Labour and the Great War: The Australian Working Class and the Making of Anzac (Sydney: Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, 2014).

Story: Hearts broken for what?

Bernard Haines

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: The authors warmly acknowledge the family of Bernard Haines and the assistance of Dr Amshuman Rao in reading and interpreting the extensive medical case notes relevant to this story. This story draws on Bernard Haines’ service dossier NAA: B2455, HAINES C; and his repatriation file NAA: B73, R14400. This imagined narrative is based on a close reading of these official records. The story of ‘Babe Haines’ and his long painful death were reported on in the press and this story has drawn on many of the contemporary newspaper articles. For further reading on repatriation see Marina Larsson, Shattered Anzacs: Living with the Scars of War (Sydney: UNSW Press, 2009).

Story: The boy soldier

Caroline Gilbert

SOURCES AND FURTHER READINGS: This story draws on the service dossiers of Albert, Charles and Robert Gilbert NAA: B2455 GILBERT ALBERT HENRY; NAA: B2455 GILBERT CHARLES; NAA: B2455 GILBERT R W; and Charles’ Red Cross Wounded and Missing files AWM 1DRL/0428; and contemporary newspaper reports. The authors would also like to gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Doreen Scarlett for providing us with a number of compelling family stories about Caroline Gilbert.

Story: No more to send

Cornelius Danswan

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Cornelius Danswan’s service dossier NAA: B2455 DANSWAN C K; his repatriation record NAA: C138, R54054; and his soldier settlement file State Records NSW: 12/7052/4948. In addition to these sources contemporary newspaper reports have also been consulted. The authors thank Keir Reeves for his insights into Australia’s Chinese community in wartime. For further reading on soldier settlement see Bruce Scates and Melanie Oppenheimer, The Last Battle of the Great War: Soldier Settlement in Australia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016).

Story: Quite a decent type of man

Elsie Tranter

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the service dossier for Elsie Tranter NAA: B2455, TRANTER ELSIE MAY; her repatriation file NAA: B73, 45567 TRANTER ELSIE MAY, and NAA: P107, M16226; as well as the personal diary of Sister Elsie Tranter AWM DRL 4081A. For further reading on Australian nurses in the Great War see Jan Bassett, Guns and Brooches: Australian Army Nursing from the Boer War to the Gulf War (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992); and Bruce Scates and Raelene Frances, Women and the Great War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

Story: We were all so fond of him

Ethel Campbell

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story is based on the Ethel Campbell collection at the Australian War Memorial 3DRL/2110. There is a collection of her poetry at the same, 2DRL/6701. Ethel Campbell’s work during the war and her tour of Australia were widely documented in Australian and South African newspapers at the time, and in Ethel’s own book, The Life of Sam Campbell (Durban: Singleton & Williams, 1938).

Story: The angel of Durban

Samuel Mellor

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This semi-fictionalised account is based on a close reading of Samuel Mellor’s service dossier NAA: B2455 MELLOR RICHARD. See also Tim Lycett and Sandra Playle, ‘A Mother’s Son: The World War I Mystery of Private Richard Mellor’, Inside History, June 2013. For further reading on military executions see Julian Putkowski and Julian Sykes, Shot at Dawn: Executions in World War One by Authority of the British Army Act (London: Pen & Sword, 1998).

Story: Marked secret

Stories 41-50

Brian Lyall

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Brian Lyall’s service dossier NAA:B2455, LYALL BRIAN; and the Lyall Papers at the State Library of Victoria, MS 10132. For further reading on the Lyall story and the war graves of Gallipoli see Bruce Scates, Return to Gallipoli: Walking the Battlefields of the Great War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

Story: A sorrow unsaid

Charles Byrne

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story is based on Charles Byrne’s service dossier NAA: B2455, BYRNE C R; his soldier settlement file State Records NSW: 12/7305/8440; and his repatriation record NAA: C138/4, M3444. To date, published studies of soldier settlement have focused on Victoria rather than New South Wales, but a general introduction to the scheme is provided by Marilyn Lake, The Limits of Hope: Soldier Settlement in Victoria 1915–1938 (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1987); Kent Fedorowich, Unfit for Heroes: Reconstruction and Soldier Settlement in the Empire Between the Wars (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995); and Richard Waterhouse, The Vision Splendid: A Social and Cultural History of Rural Australia (Fremantle: Curtin University Books, 2005). For further discussion of that strong sense of entitlement shared by men promised ‘a land fit for heroes’ see Bruce Scates and Melanie Oppenheimer, ‘ “I intend to get justice”: The moral economy of soldier settlement’, Labour History, no. 106, June 2014, pp. 229–253.

Story: His country and his manhood

Ettie Rout

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Ettie Rout’s written work, Two Years in Paris (London: E Hornibrook, 1923); Ettie Rout – Question of admission to Australia NAA: A1, 1920/3508; Jane Tolerton, Ettie: A life of Ettie Rout (Auckland: Penguin, 1992); Judith Binney, Judith Bassett, Erik Olssen, The People and the Land = Te Tangata me Te Whenua: An Illustrated History of New Zealand 1820–1920 (Wellington: Allen & Unwin, 1990). For further reading about the issue of venereal disease in the Australian and New Zealand forces see Raden Dunbar, The Secrets of the Anzacs: The Untold Story of Venereal Disease in the Australian Army, 1914–1919 (Brunswick: Scribe Publications, 2014).

Story: A guardian angel of the Anzacs

George Irwin

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on George Irwin’s service dossier NAA: B2455, IRWIN GEORGE ROY; and his Red Cross Wounded and Missing file AWM 1DRL/0428. The Irwins’ pilgrimage in 1926 was reported in the press and this story has drawn on those contemporary articles. For further reading on the Irwin story and early Australian pilgrimages to battlefields overseas see Bruce Scates, Return to Gallipoli: Walking the Battlefields of the Great War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006) and Bart Ziino, A Distant Grief: Australians, War Graves and the Great War (Perth: University of Western Australia Press, 2007). The authors thank Mike and Roz Goodwin, the students of Mackay North State High School and David Champion for sharing their story and their research into the Irwin family.

Story: All that is left of him

Gordon Corbould

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: In the absence of a service dossier, this story draws on contemporary newspaper reports; the Australian War Memorial’s file related to the loss of AE1 AWM 50, 18/2; and a short biography on Gordon published in the Sydney City Morning Herald, 1 December 1914. For an introduction to the mystery surrounding the AE1 see Benjamin Evans, ‘The loss of the AE1’, Wartime, vol. 16, 2001, pp. 10–13.

Please Note: the wreck of the AE1 was discovered in 2017, over a century after the ship had been lost.

Story: Asleep in the deep

Herbert Crowle

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story is based Bert Crowle’s service dossier NAA: B24455, CROWLE H W; the Herbert Crowle Papers at the Australian War Memorial 1DRL/0227; contemporary newspaper reports; and 10th Infantry Battalion diary AWM 23/27/10. For further detail on Pozières and the attack at Mouquet Farm see Charles Bean, Official History of Australia in the War 1914–1918, vol. 3 (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 12th edition, 1941); and Christopher Wray, Pozières: Echoes of a Distant Battle (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).

Story: A man who stood out

Hugo Throssell

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on Hugo Throssell’s service dossier NAA: B2455, THROSSELL HUGO VIVIAN HOPE; his repatriation records NAA: K60, C5723 and NAA: PP6441/1, M5273; and reports by postwar intelligence agencies on both Hugo and his wife NAA: A6119/42 and NAA: A6119 vols. 1–7. The authors have also drawn on a detailed survey of contemporary newspaper reports; C.E.W. Bean, The Story of Anzac, vol. 11 (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1924) and autobiographical accounts by Hugo Throssell’s family, namely Katharine Susannah Prichard, Child of the Hurricane (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1963) and Ric Throssell, My Father’s Son (Melbourne: William Heinemann Australia, 1989). For the most recent biography of Throssell’s life see John Hamilton, The Price of Valour (Sydney: Pan Macmillan, 2012) and for the most nuanced reading of his death, Pat Jalland, ‘A Private and Secular Grief’, History Australia, vol. 2, no. 2, 2005, pp. 42–57. For work on Katharine Susannah Prichard see Pam Portman and Sally Clarke, Katharine Susannah Prichard: Her Place (Western Australia: Gooseberry Hill Press/Katharine Susannah Prichard Foundation, 2010). Note also Prichard’s semi-autobiographical account, Intimate Strangers (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1937). The authors would also like to acknowledge the kind assistance of Peta Alderman, Manager of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission in Western Australia, and Julie Wells.

Story: War has made me a pacifist

Tom Elliott

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: This story draws on the service dossier of Major Thomas Patrick Elliott NAA B2455, ELLIOTT TP; his Red Cross Missing and Wounded file AWM 1DRL/0428; and contemporary newspaper reports. The story of Tom Elliott also features in Ross McMullin, Farewell Dear People: Biographies of Australia’s Lost Generation (Brunswick: Scribe Publishing, 2012); and Jennifer Roberts, ‘Bereft: War, Grief and Experiences of the Asylum, 1915–1935’ (PhD thesis, University of Wollongong, 2013).

Story: A Duntroon man

William Maynard

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: The authors respectfully acknowledge the Palawa people of Tasmania and their elders, past and present. This story draws on the service dossiers of James, William, and Frank Maynard NAA: B2455 MAYNARD JAMES HENRY PAUL; NAA: B2455 MAYNARD WILLIAM SAMUEL; NAA: B2455 MAYNARD FRANK; James Maynard’s repatriation file NAA: P130, R9386 MAYNARD JAMES HENRY PAUL; and contemporary newspaper accounts. This account is further informed by Molly Mallet, My Past – Their Future: Stories from Cape Barren Island (Sandy Bay: Blubber Head Press, 2001) and Amanda Jane Reynolds (ed), Keeping Culture: Aboriginal Tasmanians (Canberra: National Museum of Australia Press, 2006).

Story: Something to remember him by